Masters Program

Courses

Note:  * indicates appropriate sections/topics are subject to approval by advisor;  old course numbers are listed in parentheses

Language Courses

(200-level courses do not bear graduate credit, but may be needed to meet the language requirement, unless equivalent courses have been taken previously.)

ARAB 201. Elementary Standard Arabic, I. Mastery of the Arabic alphabet and phonetics; elementary formal grammar and the development of reading and writing skills; and conversation in the formal non-colloquial style. All students are required to register for one hour per week in the language laboratory. 5 hours.

ARAB 202. Elementary Standard Arabic, II. Continuation of Arabic 201. All students are required to register for one hour per week in the language laboratory. Prerequisite: Arabic 201. 5 hours.

ARAB 210. Colloquial Arabic, I. Development of conversational fluency in one of the major colloquial dialects; see Timetable for dialect to be taught each semester. 4 hours.

ARAB 211. Colloquial Arabic, II. Continuation of Arabic 210. Prerequisite: Arabic 210. 4 hours.

ARAB 403 (303). Intermediate Standard Arabic, I. Survey of more advanced grammar; emphasis on increasing conversational fluency in the formal noncolloquial style; and reading of prose texts reflecting aspects of Arabic culture Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ARAB 202.

ARAB 404 (304). Intermediate Standard Arabic, I. Continuation of ARAB 403. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ARAB 403.

ARAB 405 (305). Advanced Standard Arabic, I. Practice to attain conversational fluency in the formal non-colloquial style; introduction to Arabic literature; and readings in social, political, and historic writings. Prerequisite: Arabic 404. 3 hours.

ARAB 406 (306). Advanced Standard Arabic, II. Continuation of ARAB 405. Prerequisite: ARAB 405.

HEBR 201. Elementary Modern Hebrew, I. Acquaints students with the fundamental principles of the Hebrew language. Develops all four language skills; reading, writing, listening and speaking. Grammar and comprehension are exercised through the textbook, the audio-visual materials and the computer. Easy stories will be used during the term to strengthen reading comprehension. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 hours.

HEBR 202. Elementary Modern Hebrew, II. Continuation of HEBR 201, with introduction of more advanced grammar, and with emphasis on more fluency in speaking and reading. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 201 or equivalent.

HEBR 205. Introduction to Classical Hebrew, I. Stresses basic grammar of classical (biblical) Hebrew and acquisition of translation skills. Same as RLST 205. 4 hours.

HEBR 403 (303). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, I. Advanced examination of the fundamental principles of the Hebrew language. Develops all four language skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. Grammar and comprehension are exercised through the textbooks, the audio-visual materials and the computer. Examples of Hebrew fiction, largely easy stories, will be used during the term to strengthen reading comprehension. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 202 or equivalent.

HEBR 404 (304). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, II. Continuation of HEBR 403. Concentration on ability to engage in reasonable fluent discourse in Hebrew, comprehensive knowledge of formal grammar, and an ability to read easy Hebrew texts. Israeli television programs and movies are used to develop communicative skills and cultural knowledge. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 403 or equivalent.

HEBR 405 (305). Advanced Modern Hebrew, I. For students who have mastered the fundamental principles of the Hebrew language. Develops competence through reading Hebrew fiction and studying Israeli newspapers and television programs. Communication skills are exercised by means of class discussions, oral presentations, compositions and written reports on stories. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 404 or equivalent.

HEBR 406 (306). Advanced Modern Hebrew, II. Course for advanced knowledge of spoken and written standard Modern Hebrew with emphasis on Modern Hebrew literature and language, Israeli newspapers and Israeli television programs. Communication skills are exercised by means of class discussions, oral presentations, compositions and written reports on stories. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 405 or equivalent.

HEBR 407 (307). Topics in Modern Hebrew Language & Literature I. Selected readings from modern Hebrew authors, with emphasis on the novel and short story; lectures and discussions on Hebrew literature and aesthetics; and detailed analysis of formal Hebrew grammar May be repeated with approval. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 406 or consent of instructor.

HEBR 408 (308). Topics in Modern Hebrew Language & Literature II. Selected readings from modern Hebrew authors, with special emphasis on Eastern European "Revival" literature; lectures and discussions on Hebrew literature and aesthetics; and detailed analysis of formal Hebrew grammar May be repeated with approval. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HEBR 407 or consent of instructor

HNDI 201. Elementary Hindi/Urdu, I. Introduction to the Hindi/Urdu language; includes conversation with a native Hindi/Urdu-speaking tutor under the direction of a linguist instructor, and a minimum of formal grammar and Devanagari writing; introduction to Arabic-Persian script by arrangement. All students are required to register for one hour per week in the language laboratory. 5 hours.

HNDI 202. Elementary Hindi/Urdu, II. Second term of spoken Hindi/Urdu; includes conversation with a native Hindi/Urdu-speaking tutor under the direction of a linguist instructor, formal grammar based on conversational materials, and work on written Hindi; concentration on written Urdu by arrangement. Participation in the language laboratory is required. 5 hours. Prerequisite: HNDI 201

HNDI 401 (301). Intensive Hindi, I. Intensive course on the Hindi language including conversation with a native Hindi-speaking tutor under the direction of a linguist-instructor; study of the formal grammar and the Devanagari script. 10 undergraduate hours, or 8 graduate hours.

HNDI 403 (303). Intermediate Hindi, I. First term of second year of the Hindi language, including drill for more advanced conversational fluency; introduction to a greater variety of styles and levels of discourse and usage; and increasing study of the written language and more formal grammar. All students in this course are required to register for one hour per week in the language laboratory. 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: HNDI 202 or equivalent.

HNDI 404 (304). Intermediate Hindi, II. Concentration on ability to engage in reasonably fluent discourse in Hindi, on comprehensive knowledge of formal grammar, and on ability to read ordinary texts in Hindi. All students in this course are required to register for one hour per week in the language laboratory 5 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: HNDI 403 or equivalent.

HNDI 405 (305). Advanced Hindi, I. Course for advanced knowledge of spoken and written Hindi. All students are required to work at least one hour each week with a native informant and/or in the language laboratory. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HNDI 404 or consent of instructor.

HNDI 406 (306). Advanced Hindi, II. Course for advanced knowledge of spoken and written Hindi with emphasis on modern Hindi literature and language. All students are required to work at least one hour each week with a native informant and/or in the language laboratory. 3 hours. Prerequisite: HNDI 405 or consent of instructor.

HNDI 408 (308). Introduction to South Asian Literature. Introduces selected literatures of South Asia in a cross-cultural and comparative perspective: emphasizes relating literary texts and trends to the historical, sociocultural, political, and literary contexts of the subcontinent. Texts for South Asian languages are offered in English translation; in addition, there will be texts by South Asian authors written in English. Knowledge of a South Asian language not required. 3 hours. Prerequisite: Consent of course coordinator.

* LING 404 (304). Tutorials in Non-Western Languages. Advanced or intensive language instruction in a selected non-Western language; excludes instruction in East or Southeast Asian languages. May be repeated with approval. 1 to 5 undergraduate hours, or 2 to 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

SNSK 201. Elementary Sanskrit, I. Introduction to Sanskrit, treating in full the grammar of the language as preparation for reading. 4 hours.

SNSK 202. Elementary Sanskrit, II. Continuation of SNSK 201. 4 hours. Prerequisite: SNSK 201.

SNSK 403 (303)te hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: SNSK 202.

SNSK 404 (304). Readings in Sanskrit, II. Readings in Sanskrit texts. Topics may vary according to students' needs; they may include religious texts, classical literature, or a general survey of texts. Same as RLST 413. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite: SNSK 403 and consent of instructor.
Turkish: Currently listed under LING 404 (304), Tutorials in Non-Western Languages (see above). Turkish I (Elementary Turkish) and Turkish II (Intermediate Turkish) are typically offered.

Marathi, Sindhi, and Kashmiri are available on a tutorial basis.

Non-Language Courses

(SA = appropriate for South Asian concentration; ME = appropriate for Middle Eastern concentration)

ACE (Ag & Consumer Econ) 451 (351). Economics of International Development. Economics of agricultural development and the relationships between agriculture and other sectors of the economy in developing nations; agricultural productivity and levels of living in the less developed areas of the world; and studies of agricultural development in different world regions including Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ECON 302 or consent of instructor. SA

ACE (Ag & Consumer Econ) 453 (353). Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia. Analysis of plans and progress toward economic development in South and Southeast Asia; economic characteristics of the area and their significance for economic development. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 to 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ECON 302 or consent of instructor. SA

ANTH 402 (302). Transnational Islam, Europe and the U.S. Anthropological approach to transnational Islam, focusing on its various expressions in Europe and the United States, particularly since World War II. Same as ASST 402 and RLST 409. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ANTH 230 or consent of instructor. ME

ANTH 458 (358). Archeozoology. Introduces students to the use of faunal remains as they pertain to archaeological research programs. Presents and critically assesses a number of approaches to the analysis of faunal remains as to their usefulness to particular research designs. 4 hours. Prerequisite: Open to Anthropology majors with senior or graduate standing. ME

ANTH 484 (381). Asian Diasporas. Comparative study of Asian diasporic communities in various world regions through ethnography. Introduces concepts of transnationalism, globalization, and modernity in relation to Asian migration in contemporary times. Same as AAS 484. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: ANTH 184 or 284 or consent of instructor. SA

ARCH 411 (311). Early Byzantine Architecture. Architecture and urban design of the early Christian era, the Byzantine Empire, southeastern European lands under Byzantine cultural influence, and medieval Russia; from circa 300 to circa 1500. 3 hours. Prerequisite: ARCH 210, ARTH 111, or consent of instructor. ME

ARCH 511 (411). Seminar in Ancient and Medieval Architecture. Seminar on topics in ancient, early Christian, Byzantine, and Medieval Architecture. 4 hours. Prerequisite: ARCH 410, 411, or 412, or equivalent as determined by the instructor. ME

ARTH (Art History) 447 (347). France and Its Others. Examines the relationship between art and colonialism in nineteenth-century France. Topics include orientalism, primitivism, and exoticism; the central figures include Delacroix, Flaubert, Gerome, and Gauguin. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Junior standing or consent of instructor. ME

* ASST 550 (450). Seminar in Asian Studies. Seminar on selected Asian topics. May be repeated to a maximum of 12 hours if topics vary. Topics will vary with instructor. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. SA/ME

* CWL (Comparative and World Literature) 502 (402). Cross-cultural Comparison. Problems and methods of cross-cultural literary studies, concentrating on the effects of historical encounters between different civilizations and on theoretical issues in comparing literatures across cultures. 4 hours. Prerequisite: Knowledge of two languages other than English or (with instructor's consent) advanced knowledge of one foreign language. SA/ME

* ECON 550 (450). Development Economics. Analyzes the economic problems associated with newly developing nations; emphasizes their economic structures, their factor scarcities, and their programs for development. Not open for graduate credit to graduate candidates in economics. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. Graduate credit is not given for both ECON 450 and ECON 550 or 551. Prerequisite: ECON 102 and 103 or equivalent. ECON 300 strongly recommended. SA/ME

* ECON 552 (452). Computable G E Modeling. Discusses problems and methods of building social accounting matrices and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models; provides hands-on experience with CGE models with a series of PC-based exercises. The exercises demonstrate a number of techniques for constructing CGE models and show applications of these models to a variety of economic policy problems in developing countries such as food subsidies, international trade restrictions, foreign debt, and sectoral investment priorities. 4 hours. Prerequisites: ECON 500 and 509 or equivalent; MATH 220 or equivalent. SA/ME

* EPS (Educational Policy Studies) 413 (306). Aesthetic Education. Theoretical introduction to the problems involved in teaching critical appreciation of the arts; examines materials from aesthetics, art history, and criticism for their relevance to the problems of aims, curriculum, organization, and teaching-learning. SA

* EPS (Educational Policy Studies) 519 (407). Philosophy of Language and Education. Examines philosophical issues in language meaning, and use, as they pertain to educational problems. Topics range from issues in logic, analysis, or critical thinking to contemporary discourse theory. 4 hours. Prerequisite: Coursework in philosophy, philosophy of education, or consent of instructor. SA

* EPS (Educational Policy Studies) 520 (405). Foundations of Aesthetic Education. Philosophical approach to the problems of teaching for appreciation in formal education; appraisal of the status of aesthetic education, its nature and function, and its relation to other types of education. 4 hours. Prerequisite: EPS 413 or equivalent. SA

* ENGL 461 (361). Topics in Literature. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite: One year of college literature, or consent of instructor. SA/ME

* FR 479 (379). Studies in Francophonie. Studies of various genres, periods, and topics of French literature outside of France, with a different geographical emphasis each term. Regions include black Africa, the Caribbean, Canada, North Africa, the Middle East, and Switzerland. Same as CWL 434. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 or 4 graduate hours. Maximum of 12 undergraduate hours or 16 graduate hours. ME

GEOG 453 (353). Russia and Eurasia. Political and economic transition of Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia; geopolitical and demographic trends, and patterns of Soviet environmental legacy in these regions. 3 hours. ME

HIST 430 (388). Mughal Empire and British Raj, Indian national awakening, and struggle for independence under Gandhi and Nehru. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. SA

HIST 435 (322). Middle East 1566-1914. Political, social, cultural, and ideological developments in Egypt, Arabia, the Fertile Crescent, Iran and Turkey from the mid 16th century to the eve of World War I. Premodern society and institutions, the question of "decline" and "awakening", encounters with Europe and self-strengthening reforms, relations between Muslims, Christians, and Jews, the role of women and the family, and class formations. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One year of college history or social science, or consent of instructor. ME

HIST 437 (323). The Middle East in the 20th Century. Political and ideological developments in Egypt, Arabia, the Fertile Crescent (including Israel), Iran, and Turkey from World War I to the present, with emphasis on the period to the 1960s; economic, social, and cultural trends in the region also addressed. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One year of college history or political science, or consent of instructor. HIST 135 is recommended. ME

HIST 438 (302). Egypt Since the First World War. Examines the twentieth-century history of Egypt, emphasizing the internal social, political, economic, and ideological developments, with attention to Egypt's role in regional and international politics. Readings include novels and short stories to introduce students to modern Egyptian culture. Same as AFST 437. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One year of college history or consent of instructor. ME

HIST 439 (344). The Ottoman Empire. Economy, society, law, and government; the Ottomans and Mediterranean society; Ottoman culture and Islamic tradition; minorities; trade, diplomacy, and capitulations; "decline" and dismemberment; and traditional and westernizing attempts at revival. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One year of college history or consent of instructor. ME

HIST 466 (329). Southeastern Europe. The political, economic, and cultural development of the Rumanians, South Slavs, Greeks, and Albanians; the impact of Ottoman rule; the rise of nationalism and the formation of national states; and the Orthodox Church. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One year of college history or consent of instructor. ME

* HIST 502 (492). Problems in Comparative History. Intensive comparative examinations of particular issues in the histories of multiple countries, cultures or periods; emphasizes methodology, the discipline of comparative history, and the nature of historiography in a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary context. 4 hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 12 hours. SA/ME

* HIST 503 (493). Problems in Comparative Women's History. Examines major works in global women's history from about 1700 to 1950. Introduces students to major themes in women's history as well as major historiographical debates. Same as GWS 501. 4 hours. SA/ME

HIST 535 (485). Problems in Middle Eastern History. Covers, in depth, major problems of specific periods and areas and the relevant literature of Near and Middle Eastern History, which will vary from term to term. 4 hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 hours if topics vary. ME

HIST 536 (441). Seminar in Middle Eastern History. Investigates research topics in Near and Middle Eastern history in accordance with students' needs. Topics may vary from term to term. Students will prepare oral and written reports. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 hours. 4 hours. ME

* HIST 552 (421). Seminar in European History Since 1789. 4 hours. SA/ME

* LA (Landscape Architecture) 438 (338). Design Workshop Studio 2. Project design at various scales utilizing problems of a wide range of complexity and subject matter; rural, community, and urban problems, housing, recreation, and natural areas; and emphasizes problem analysis and generation of innovative design alternatives. The student selects from several sections depending on specific interests. 5 undergraduate hours, or 3 to 6 graduate hours. Prerequisite: LA 336 or consent of instructor. SA/ME

* LA (Landscape Architecture) 590 (490). Directed Research. Nature and scope of projects to be determined by consultation between student and faculty adviser; open to landscape architecture majors as well as those from other disciplines who wish to engage in interdisciplinary work. 2 to 8 hours. May be repeated. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. SA/ME

* LING 450 (350). Sociolinguistics, I. Introduction to the fundamental concepts, philosophy, and research methods of the study of language in its social contexts. Special attention to language spread, and language variation; language attitudes; language diversity; code-switching; language standardization; and language identity and loyalty. Same as EIL 450. 3 undergraduate hours. 2 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: LING 405 or equivalent. SA/ME

* LING 587 (487). Topics in Sociolinguistics. Discussion of current topics in sociolinguistics that have relevance to contemporary societies. 4 hours. May be repeated in the same term to a maximum of 8 hours. May be repeated in separate terms to a maximum of 12 hours. Approved for both letter and S/U grading. Prerequisite: LING 450. SA/ME

* LING 591 (403). Seminar in Linguistic Analysis. Discussion of advanced topics of current interest. 2 or 4 hours. May be repeated with approval. Prerequisite: LING 501 and LING 502. SA/ME

MUS 416 (316). Anthropology of Music. Introduction to the anthropological study of music, including the role of music in the world's societies and non-Western musical systems and cultures. Same as ANTH 416. 3 hours. Prerequisite: ANTH 103, or consent of instructor. SA/ME

MUS 417 (317). Area Studies in Ethnomusicology. Seminar devoted to intensive study in the music of one specific people or geographical region. Same as ANTH 417. 3 hours. Maximum of 12 undergraduate hours or 9 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Senior standing in music, or consent of instructor. SA/ME

* NPRE ( Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering) 480 (380). Topics in Energy Security. Examines the interplay between security and supplies of energy and survival essentials such as food and water. Topics covered can include: coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas and the evolution of importance of various fuels in the Franco-Prussian, First and Second World Wars, in subsequent conflicts in Southwest and Central Asia and in Africa, and in military planning for possible future conflicts. Some offerings will focus on regional issues such as evolution of the concept of energy and food self-sufficiency in India, Bangladesh, and China; the impact of drought and international drainage basin accords; building and securing fossil fuel pipelines; oil in the South China Sea; and the interaction between nuclear power and military security in Pakistan, India, China, Japan, and Korea. Same as GLBL 480. 3 hours. May be repeated in separate terms to a maximum of 6 hours. Prerequisite: Junior standing and completion of the Composition I and Quantitative Reasoning I requirements; or graduate standing. SA/ME

* NPRE ( Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering) 482 (382). Military and Civilian Uses of Nuclear Energy. Examines theory, global and regional security environments, and arms control and verification relevant to military uses of nuclear energy and the impact of the military uses of nuclear energy on the nuclear electrical power sector. Topics include theory of international conflict, arms control agreements, delivery vehicles, fission and fusion reactions and the role of tritium, detection of fissile materials, and military and civilian uses of nuclear energy in South Asia, the Far East, the Middle East, Russia, and NATO. Same as GLBL 482. 1 hour. Prerequisite: Junior or graduate standing. SA/ME

* NPRE (Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering) 483 (383). Seminar on Security. Technology and security issues are analyzed through preparation of reports on a weekly seminar chosen from a regular seminar offering or an alternative approved list. Topics covered include technology of domestic and international security and the regional and international contexts that influence the nature of security problems. Same as GLBL 483. 1 hour. May be repeated in separate terms to a maximum of 2 hours. Prerequisite: Junior standing and completion of the Composition I requirement, or graduate standing. SA/ME

RLST 403 (303). Women in Muslim Societies. Examination of gender ideologies and social realities affecting the lives of women in various Muslim countries. Same as ANTH, GLBL and W S 403 and HIST 434. 3 undergraduate hours or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: A course in Islam or the Middle East, or consent of instructor. ME

RLST 408 (308). Islam and Modern Society. Examines the role of Islam in contemporary politics, the contemporary resurgence of Islam, and the articulation of Islamic approaches to the new economic order, nationalism, and the changing role of women. 3 undergraduate hours or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Junior standing or consent of instructor. ME

RLST 415 (315). Introductory Readings of the Talmud. Introduces students to the rhetoric, vocabulary, grammar, and argumentation of the Babylonian Talmud. The students will read, translate, and analyze portions of the Babylonian Talmud daily in class. Prerequisite: Advanced knowledge of Hebrew, especially Hebrew grammar, and the consent of the instructor. 3 hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 6 hours. ME

RLST 416 (316). Readings in Rabbinic Midrash. Introduces students to the rhetoric, vocabulary, grammar, and argumentation of the Rabbinic Midrashic Collections, especially Mekhilta, Sifre Deuteronomy, and the Bereshit Rabbah. The students will read, translate, and analyze portions of these collections daily in class. Prerequisite: Advanced knowledge of Hebrew, especially Hebrew grammar, and the consent of the instructor. 3 hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 6 hours. ME

RLST 429 (329). Language of Religion. Introduction to the study of the language of religion; topics include: theoretical and empirical issues related to the field, methodology for the study of language of religion, analysis of religious texts, critical evaluation of the philosophical, theological, and linguistic perspectives on the nature and function of the language of religion, and analysis of diverse forms and styles of the language of religion. Same as LING 429. 3 undergraduate hours or 4 graduate hours. SA

RLST 442 (342). History of Early Judaism. The history of Judaism from Ezra to the rise of Islam: Hellenism and Judaism, varieties of Judaism, Palestinian Judaism and its documents, Babylonian Judaism, the rabbis, and popular Jewish culture. Same as HIST 432. 3 hours. Prerequisite: Credit in one course in religious studies at the 200- or 300-level, or 400 level, or consent of instructor. ME

RLST 443 (343). Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. Examines the literature and religious practice of the great civilizations of the Near East, particularly the Sumerian, Assyro-Babylonian, Egyptian, Canaanite and Hittite cultures. 3 hours. Prerequisite: RELST 201 or equivalent. ME

RLST 480. Islamic Law. Introduction to Islamic legal philosophy and the historical evolution of Islamic legal and jurisprudential system. Begins by studying the origins, nature, sources and interpretive methodologies of classical Islamic law, and the main institutions for upholding this law, the madhhab, or school of law, examining its development from the formative to the post-formative periods and highlighting important controversies generated along the way. Then looks at the early encounter of Islamic law with modernity. Followed by an exploration of several contemporary topics that have served as catalysts for new tensions and alternative approaches and interpretive theories. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Previous coursework on Islam or consent of instructor. ME

RLST 481. Muslim Ethics in Global AgeExploration of contemporary, often revisionist Muslim ideas on a broad range of ethical issues that face societies today, such as human rights, democracy, gender equality, just war, pluralism, and bioethics. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Previous coursework on Islam or the Middle East. ME

RLST 482. Muslim-Christian Interactions. Explores the complexity of Muslim-Christian interactions since early Islam, including theological and philosophical exchanges, debates, polemics, interfaith dialogue, perceptions of each other, Muslim minorities in the West, and Christian minorities in the Muslim world, and the relationship of religion to culture. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. ME

RLST 483. Salvation in Islamic Thought. Introduction to salvation in Islamic thought, with emphasis on discussions of the fate of "Others" (i.e. non-Muslims). Begins with a study of the origins and sources of this discourse, followed by an examination of evolving orientations from the formative to the post-formative periods. Important controversies generated along the way, including exclusivist-inclusivist, universalist-anti-universalist, and Sufi-anti-Sufi debates, will be explored. This is followed by an assessment of the new approaches to salvation in modern Islamic thought, with particular emphasis on the contemporary pluralist-inclusivist debate. Finally, alternative approaches to the topic of salvation, including reincarnation, will be examined. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Previous coursework on Islam or consent of instructor. ME

RLST 514. Islamic Theology. Study of the language, arguments and schools of classical Islamic theology, mainly through direct study of English translations of theological texts from two different theological schools. ME

RSOC 443 (343). Social Change in Developing Areas. Description and analysis of recent social and cultural changes occurring in new nations and developing economies; special attention given to problems of traditional social structure undergoing modernization; and social factors in economic growth, caste and class, nation-building, urbanization and population composition, education, family, and religion. Same as SOC 463. 3 hours. Prerequisite: SOC 100. SA/ME

* SOC 447 (347). Environmental Sociology. Examination of historical and modern consequences of environmental alteration and pollution and resource limitations on human populations in the context of various social change theories. Explores the environmental movement, population explosion, the "limits to growth debate," and the impacts of environmental change on food production, land, and water quality. Same as ENVS 447, and RSOC 447. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 or 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: SOC 100, RSOC 110, or equivalent; and SOC 380 or equivalent; or consent of instructor. SA

* SOC 562 (422). Seminar in Transnational Studies. Intensive study of a selected area in transnational sociology, e.g., diasporas, global political economy, global environmental studies, transnational racial stratification, etc. Prerequisite: Graduate standing and consent of instructor. 4 hours. May be repeated in the same or separate terms to a maximum of 8 hours as topics vary. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. SA

* UP (Urban and Regional Planning) 494 (394). Special Topics in Planning. Seminar on topics of current interest, as announced in the Schedule. 1 to 6 hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 16 hours. ME